Participants should be informed at the beginning of the study that they have the right to withdraw at any point in the study. Questionnaires are an example of a survey method that are used to collect large amounts of information from a target group that may be spread out across the country. Another weakness of systematic sampling is you need a bigger sample size to be able to filter out participants based on the “nth” selection. The observers would need to know what they are looking for to make accurate recordings and therefore behavioural categories are created to make it clear what behaviours are to be recorded. OCR GCSE Psychology (9-1) (from 2017) qualification information including specification, exam materials, teaching resources, learning resources When we break this down into its simplest form this would be 5:4 because we can divide both sides by 3. OCR GCSE Psychology 9-1 Practice papers. Laboratory experiments can be checked for reliability as they are easier to replicate. For example, in a school, there are several subgroups such as teachers, support staff, students and other staff. This section on designing research for GCSE psychology and research methods is quite extensive and requires you to know about a quite a few different aspects of designing psychological research studies. Copying for resale or sharing with other establishments is prohibited: amac education, 2018© If researchers wanted to observe “playground behaviour”, researchers would not necessarily know what they were looking for in this definition or what may be classified as “playground behaviour”. If we had 15 boys and 12 girls in one class and we wanted to compare this as a ratio, this would be 15:12. This can be a difficult task to achieve and requires a great deal of time to construct questions that do not bias or lead the respondents into responses. Deception must be avoided although the BPS recognises that some studies are not possible without this to gather meaningful results. Below we have some examples of scattergrams that give you an idea of how each correlation would look if presented to you. This means the findings should have high reliability and validity to make generalisations to the target population. 15 (boys) x 100 (the whole amount) divide by 20 (the total number of boys) = 75%. Let’s work through a few subjective examples for each: Let’s assume there is a correlation (relationship) between the two variables age and beauty. As part of your GCSE Psychology course, you need to know the following topics within this chapter: This may be measured in a number of ways (taking a memory test for example or quiz). Another weakness of using field experiments is they raise ethical issues in regards to informed consent. Another strength is qualitative data can help researchers understand peoples attitudes, thoughts and beliefs which may better explain their behaviour rather than them having to guess. A good way to remember the difference is to think of it like this: The dependent variable “depends” on whats being changed (the independent variable). Structured interviews gather quantitive data but lack qualitative data. A weakness of using qualitative data is it tends to be completely subjective. For example, Milgram’s shock study gathered volunteers who agreed to take part but did not necessarily know what they were being tested on (obedience). This website and its content is subject to our Terms and Here is an example of a Scattergram showing a positive correlation below – notice how all the recording measure along an invisible line almost going diagonally across: The normal distribution is the predicted distribution when considering an equally likely set of results. Interpret graphs for correlation including: The characteristics of normal distribution. This next section focuses on all the ethical considerations based on the British Psychological Society guidelines and ways in which each can be dealt. Correlations form part of a statistical technique to analyse and display the possible relationship between the two variables. A researcher may find that maintaining confidentiality can be difficult as they wish to publish the findings. Gathering too few participants increases the risks of individual differences being the difference in results while gathering a large number requires more time, effort and resources. A strength of using case studies is they provide detailed information about individuals (or target group/institution) rather than collecting a score on a metric test from a person. All 20 words are written down on a piece of paper and put into a hat. FEEDBACK IS APPRECIATED TO IMPROVE AND UPDATE thanks. We can see that the mode is 7 and 8 because they both appear the most which is 4 times. Another benefit is case studies collect information over a long period of time so changes in behaviour can be observed and comparisons are drawn over this period to understand the changes. So using the example before, if we had a group of 20 boys and 15 of them were seen to be running and we wanted to work out the percentage of this, we could calculate it in the following way: 15 x 100 divided by 20 (total no. registered in England (Company No 02017289) with its registered office at 26 Red Lion Within psychological research, the most ideal matched pairs participants tend to be identical twins as they account have identical biology (as they are similar) and potentially very similar personality factors too. Questionnaires are practical ways for researchers to gather large amounts of information very quickly on topics where the responses are best suited for yes or no responses. There are three types of averages that can be calculated from the raw data obtained from studies which allow researchers to identify patterns in the behaviour. Hypotheses – Variables – Sampling – Design - Correlation – Research Procedures – Planning/Conducting Research - Ethics You may sometimes be asked to draw a line of central tendency too within a correlation; all this means is you draw a line down the middle of all the correlations with equal amounts on either side of it. It is difficult to match people based on personality variables or filter out individual differences for certain. There can be ethical concerns with using case studies as the people or group being followed are usually of interest because of some psychological problem. The data is represented in a numerical form such as a score on a test or times taken to complete a task. Quantitative & Qualitative Data – Primary & Secondary Data – Computation – Descriptive Statistics – Interpretation & Display of Quantitative Data – Normal Distributions, Research Methods OCR GCSE psychology Independent Learning Workbook (photocopy friendly, PDF File) Covers: Structured interviews can be replicated far more easily than unstructured interviews as the questions are all pre-set. The selection of participants can be done in a randomised way such as drawing out numbers from a hat if the sample size is small or having a computer randomly select the participants if the sample size is large. An example of a null hypothesis for a hypothetical scenario is “watching television before bed has no impact on how well you sleep”. Therefore the median in the example is 8. Here’s an example below: We’ve already looked at scattergrams when discussing correlations earlier. This may be a natural setting that has been organised by the researcher to make it easier to observe the targets. memorising lists of words to test memory), observational studies and their setup are more natural providing more ecologically valid results. Perhaps we find that the students who performed the best were those with prior knowledge of the questions in the test?. The observational method is high in ecological validity and its use is very suitable for social behaviours as it allows researchers to gauge peoples true responses. To reduce researcher bias, two methods used are random allocation and counterbalancing. A field or natural experiment can include confederates that participants are unaware of also being involved to test their response in the field setting. The goal is to gain a representative sample that then allows the researcher to make generalisations across the whole population, based on the findings of this sample. This is because the people are paired up together based on similar traits that are relevant to the study. There can be a positive correlation, a negative correlation and zero correlation. Order effects are apparent in experiments where repeated measure designs are used and this involves participants learning or improving from their experience of having to do the experiment more than once. When participants can only answer yes or no, this does not tell us why they think or respond this way which may be more important to understand behaviour. There is also the risk that the researcher themselves projects their own biases onto the findings and makes their own interpretations of the content making the case study unreliable. The hypothesis is not strictly speaking a prediction and should not be used in the future tense i.e. • Presentation of Data: Tables and Graphs This would be considered a positive correlation because both the variables increase together. AQA GCSE Psychology Past Papers. Informed consent means revealing to the participant the real aims of the study or telling them what will happen within the study. This can include verbal and written instructions. Quantitive data is data that represents how much, how long, how many etc there are of something. Qualitative data cannot be counted or quantified as easily although it can be placed into categories to count the frequency in which it is reported to occur. Participants should have also given informed consent and know fully what they are consenting to. o Decimal / Standard form data Weaknesses of quantitive data include the possibility that meaningful details could be lost or lacking as researchers focus on a narrow set of responses or pre-defined questions people answer. We may conduct this experiment and find that music improves learning as the students who listened to the music performed better. Search resources: Filter . This then requires the researcher to make a judgement on its cause which may be riddled with bias or may simply be incorrect. If you remember that the independent variable (IV) always comes first, you should be able to recall that the dependent variable (DV) is then the outcome. Questionnaires can be conducted face to face, via phone or video call too. • Ethics

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