and A. McLean (New York, 1788). Madison declares that III a) “pure democracy,” works against solutions II a) and II b. III b) “a republic, by which I mean a government in which the scheme of representation takes place, opens a different prospect and promises the cure for which we are seeking.”, “The two great points of difference between a democracy and a republic.”, The first difference III b)* is “to refine and enlarge the public views” by way of the election system. 85 (Hamilton), Vocabulary Help: The Defining Twilight Series. Complaints are every where heard from our most considerate and virtuous citizens, equally the friends of public and private faith, and of public and personal liberty; that our governments are too unstable; that the public good is disregarded in the conflicts of rival parties; and that measures are too often decided, not according to the rules of justice, and the rights of the minor party; but by the superior force of an interested and over-bearing majority. The forerunner of The Federalist No. The apportionment of taxes on the various descriptions of property is an act which seems to require the most exact impartiality; yet there is, perhaps, no legislative act in which greater opportunity and temptation are given to a predominant party to trample on the rules of justice. They are not found to be such on the injustice and violence of individuals, and lose their efficacy in proportion to the number combined together; that is, in proportion as their efficacy becomes needful.2. The diversity in the faculties of men from which the rights of property originate, is not less an insuperable obstacle to an uniformity of interests. But what if we have majority faction? Among the numerous advantages promised by a well constructed union, none deserves to be more accurately developed than its tendency to break and control the violence of faction.1 The friend of popular governments, never finds himself so much alarmed for their character and fate, as when he contemplates their propensity to this dangerous vice. Evidently by one of two only. It could never be more truly said than of the first remedy, that it is worse than the disease. As long as the reason of man continues fallible, and he is at liberty to exercise it, different opinions will be formed. The Federalist, A Collection of Essays, Let us examine the points in which it varies from pure democracy, and we shall comprehend both the nature of the cure, and the efficacy which it must derive from the union. Is a law proposed concerning private debts? But the most common and durable source of factions, has been the various and unequal distribution of property. Throughout the papers, the idea of that more perfect union occupies center stage. Theoretic politicians, who have patronized this species of government, have erroneously supposed that by reducing mankind to a perfect equality in their political rights, they would, at the same time, be perfectly equalized and assimilated in their possessions, their opinions, and their passions. The effect of the first difference is, on the one hand, to refine and enlarge the public views, by passing them through the medium of a chosen body of citizens, whose wisdom may best discern the true interest of their country, and whose patriotism and love of justice, will be least likely to sacrifice it to temporary or partial considerations. When a majority is included in a faction, the form of popular government, on the other hand, enables it to sacrifice to its ruling passion or interest both the public good and the rights of other citizens. 78 (Hamilton), Section XII: Judiciary: Federalist No. Federalist Papers No. 82 (Hamilton), Section XII: Judiciary: Federalist No. In the next place, as each representative will be chosen by a greater number of citizens in the large than in the small republic, it will be more difficult for unworthy candidates to practise with success the vicious arts, by which elections are too often carried; and the suffrages of the people being more free, will be more likely to centre on men who possess the most attractive merit, and the most diffusive and established characters. the United States, and research and development projects to bring historical records to the Federalist 10 was written in concordance with other essays published under The Federalist Papers. It may clog the administration, it may convulse the society; but it will be unable to execute and mask its violence under the forms of the Constitution. See also JM’s first speech of 6 June and his first speech of 26 June 1787 at the Federal Convention, and his letter to Jefferson of 24 Oct. 1787. “There was a certain disadvantage in making derogatory remarks to a majority that must be persuaded to adopt your arguments” (“‘That Politics May Be Reduced to a Science,’” Huntington Library Quarterly, XX [1956–57], 354). It contains 23 paragraphs. 14 (Madison), Section III: Disadvantages of Existing Government: Federalist No. Hence it is, that such democracies have ever been spectacles of turbulence and contention; have ever been found incompatible with personal security, or the rights of property; and have in general been as short in their lives, as they have been violent in their deaths. written in favour of the New Constitution, By a Citizen of New-York. 16-20 (Madison and Hamilton), Section III: Disadvantages of Existing Government: Federalist No. Every shilling with which they overburden the inferior number, is a shilling saved to their own pockets. The latent causes of faction are thus sown in the nature of man; and we see them every where brought into different degrees of activity, according to the different circumstances of civil society. As to “respect for character,” JM remarked that “in a multitude its efficacy is diminished in proportion to the number which is to share the praise or the blame” (PJM description begins William T. Hutchinson et al., eds., The Literature Note. The question resulting is, whether small or extensive republics are most favourable to the election of proper guardians of the public weal; and it is clearly decided in favour of the latter by two obvious considerations. GRE General Test Cram Plan 2nd Edition, Professional Learning / Education Conferences, Section I: General Introduction: Federalist No. As long as the connection subsists between his reason and his self-love, his opinions and his passions will have a reciprocal influence on each other; and the former will be objects to which the latter will attach themselves.

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