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Meeting Aaron at Hamburg, Josef is shocked to see his once-confident father visibly anxious and harrowed. Isabels story starts with a riot. Mahmoud learns to shed his anonymity and turn more decisive as his raft flounders in the Mediterranean. Eliot Schrefer, two-time National Book Award finalist. Josef is 12 years old at the beginning of the book, living in Nazi Germany in 1938, where Jewish people like Josef are treated as "subhuman" and second-class citizens. Josef Landauis fleeing Nazi Germany in 1939. This section starts with Josefs perspective, somewhere on the Atlantic in 1939, 8 days from home (74). 3 Mar. Josef demonstrates his personal desire to grow up, but over the course of the novel he comes to recognize the value of being able to be a child. Isabels boat, too, tips over, the sea claiming her familys food and water. Free trial is available to new customers only. Lito jumps in the water to distract the Coast Guard, and Isabels mother gives birth to a boy, just as they reach the shore. Josefs fathers jump into the sea symbolizes his desire to annihilate himself. From the outset, Gratz places readers in the middle of the action and immediately demonstrates the cruelty of the Nazis against the Jews. All three stories make for a great novel and it will teach you a lot and appreciate how good we have it. When the family is eventually caught, Josefs mother is forced to choose which of her children will be freed and which will be sent to a concentration camp. Mahmouds story starts with their apartment building collapsing, due to people rioting because of the civil war going on in Syria. Even though Aaron still lives, his suicide attempt shows not only his own inner despair but the trauma that this event causes for Josef. Mahmouds journey is punctuated by icy rain even when he is still on dry land, as in Turkey, where his family scrambles for a dry place to stay. Josef; his mother, Rachel; and his sister, Ruth, leave for Hamburg, where they are to meet Aaron and sail to Cuba, which is said to be offering asylum to those fleeing Nazi Germany. Complete your free account to access notes and highlights, Refugee: At only 13, Josef takes on much of the family's responsibilities. The third story belongs to thirteen-year-old Mahmoud Bishara, who lives in war-torn Aleppo, Syria, against the backdrop of a crisis which continues into the present day. It carried 937 Jewish refugees who were seeking freedom from Nazi persecution in Germany. Find related themes, quotes, symbols, characters, and more. Water becomes the agent of change in each of these cases, emphasizing the centrality of adapting to survival. SparkNotes Plus subscription is $4.99/month or $24.99/year as selected above. Complete your free account to request a guide. The places where they live are in a horrifying state of turmoil. He promises the passengers that he will try to deliver them to a country other than Germany. Ed. Josef's father, along with thousands of other Jewish men, was arrested and sent to Dachau, a concentration camp. My students love how organized the handouts are and enjoy tracking the themes as a class., Requesting a new guide requires a free LitCharts account. Detailed explanations, analysis, and citation info for every important quote on LitCharts. Officer Padron insists they had the right papers but the crowd gets mad insisting they also have the right papers. "Refugee - Analysis" eNotes Publishing Instant PDF downloads. The chapter ends as Josef searches for his father and realizes his father has jumped overboard. Chapter 13 Summary: "Josef: Somewhere on the Atlantic Ocean1939" During the Atlantic crossing in 1939, Josef's bar mitzvah ceremony is about to take place. Josefs hope starts to waver following the discovery that the ship may not actually allow them to find a new life in Cuba. Making their way past ISIS operatives, they get to Turkey by road, where a boat is to take them to Greece tomorrow. Again, like it was for the Landaus at the Cuban coast, that tomorrow is deferred, day after day and week after week, and the family is forced to take shelter in an abandoned Turkish mall. Summary This section starts with Josef's perspective, somewhere on the Atlantic in 1939, "8 days from home" (74). Start your 48-hour free trial to get access to more than 30,000 additional guides and more than 350,000 Homework Help questions answered by our experts. Finally, storyboards are a great way to assess student understanding because they provide a visual representation of student learning. The places where they live are in a horrifying state of turmoil. Refugee: Josef: Havana Harbor - 1939, 19 days (2) Summary & Analysis Next. Our, "Sooo much more helpful thanSparkNotes. When students storyboard, they are actively engaged in the learning process and can make connections between the text and their own lives. Mahmoud; Waleed; their parents, Youssef and Fatima; and their baby sister, Hana, leave for Germany. The second is the date of Within the portal, all users can view and copy all storyboards. Youve successfully purchased a group discount. You'll be able to access your notes and highlights, make requests, and get updates on new titles. (including. Meant to be read, discussed, and shared widely. Pam Muoz Ryan, author of Echo and Esperanza Rising. Mahmoud Bishara is a twelve-year-old boy who lives in Aleppo, Syria in 2015. Word Count: 1329. Students will see themselves in the young protagonists: children faced with insurmountable and tragic circumstances but who, at their heart, are just kids who love their families and want to live in peace. But Captain Schroeder recognizes the necessity of keeping those hopes alive, and so continues to conceal that there may be trouble when they reach Cuba. Judy Blundell, National Book Award winning author of What I Saw and How I Lied. In Josefs story, the very calm of the Atlantic Ocean is menacing, hiding a darker future. Josef again shows his passage into adulthood, as he notices and worries about his mothers mental condition. Discount, Discount Code online is the same, and will be the first date in the citation. Six months later, Aaron tells his family in a letter that he has been released from the concentration camp Dachau by the Nazis on the condition that the family leave Germany immediately. eNotes Editorial. Josef is a Jewish boy in 1930s Nazi Germany. This is a must read for anyone, especially people who like history. Equally real are the events of 1994 depicted in the novel. Mahmoud hands his sister, Hana, to another passing raft of refugees, knowing that his mother cannot hold her and swim. His only distinguishing characteristics are big ears and wire-rimmed glasses. Though Refugee is a novel, all three of its main storylines are based on actual historical events. Through the perils and forced courage of his protagonists, Gratz highlights the biggest tragedy of all refugee crises in history: the loss of childhood. Instant PDF downloads. Complete your free account to request a guide. Ruta Sepetys, author of Between Shades of Gray. Gratz illustrates more dehumanization from the Nazis, exemplified in Schiendicks equation of the children with rats. You'll also get updates on new titles we publish and the ability to save highlights and notes. Eventually, the captain announces that they are not going to be allowed to dock in Havana and that the boat will be leaving. Refugee is both thrilling and heartrending. Isabel's story is like that of thousands of other Cuban immigrants who all fled Castro's Cuba. Josef is a Jewish boy in 1930s Nazi Germany. Isabel Fernandez's story begins in 1994 in Havana, Cuba under the oppressive rule of Fidel Castro. Because of this, they all want to escape to a safer place. The rest, like Josef and his mother, were largely sent to concentration camps after Germany invaded other European countries. for a customized plan. In doing so, he is able to atone for a past crime: he is Mariano Padron, one of the police officers who kept the passengers of the St. Louis from disembarking in Cuba in 1939, and only after stalling them for days with the false promise of maana. Complete your free account to request a guide. Teachers and parents! As a narrative device, this has the effect of accentuating the perils of unusual transcontinental journeys, which the reader is habituated to consider in terms of air travel. Anincredibly important, heartrending, edge-of-the-seat read, bringing light to the plight of immigrants who search for safety and freedom. What is a conflict in the book Refugee by Alan Gratz? Josefs father gets sent to a concentration camp. The St. Louis was an actual ship that sailed from Hamburg to Cuba in May, 1939 under the command of Captain Gustav Schrder. The free trial period is the first 7 days of your subscription. Refugee is a historical fiction novel written in 2017 that weaves together three compelling stories of families seeking sanctuary in other countries. With the fall of the Soviet Union, aid to Cuba has dried up, and many families starve. Comment on the use of imagery in "Games at Twilight.". You can view our. All storyboards are public and can be viewed and copied by anyone. Along with the Castillosincluding Isabels best friend, IvnIsabel; her father, Geraldo; and her pregnant mother, Teresa, leave Havana for Florida. Officer Padron, a Cuban policeman assigned to the St. Louis, saves Josefs father. His mother, father, little brother Waleed, and baby sister Hana barely manage to escape the bombing of their apartment building. When the family finally gets to their promised boat, they find that it is merely a rubber raft. When Isabel is asked to play a song at her new school in America, she plays a Cuban salsa version of The Star-Spangled Banner.. After Mahmouds home is destroyed, his brother Waleed, sister Hana, and his parents drive to the border of Turkey, hoping to escape. In one, Josef and his Jewish family flee Nazi Berlin in 1938. on 50-99 accounts. Margaret Neville, The King's English Bookstore, 2018 Sydney Taylor Book Award Winner for Older Readers, 2018 National Jewish Book Award Winner for Young Adults, New York Times Notable Middle Grade Childrens Book 2017, 2017 Cybils Middle Grade Fiction Award Winner, 2018 Indies Choice/E.B. Did you know you can highlight text to take a note? Impossible odds and families in peril make for vivid and unrelenting suspense in these stories of flight and daring. Renew your subscription to regain access to all of our exclusive, ad-free study tools. Log in here. Mahmoud and his traumatized younger brother, Waleed, have learned to survive the frequent bombings and the bullying by majority Sunnis by learning to be invisible. However, the family is forced to act when their neighborhood is bombed. Plus, our printable worksheets make it easy to take the fun offline. His selflessness is made evident when he sacrifices his own life for his sister's. Josef later dies in a concentration camp. From the creators of SparkNotes, something better. The novels subtler point is that this extraordinariness itself is terrible. You'll be billed after your free trial ends. Mahmoud Bishara's story begins in 2015, during the ongoing Syrian Civil War. Writing of the Syrian crisis, he notes. Faced with her father being sent to prison, Isabel and her family (her pregnant Mami, Papi, and grandfather Lito) decide to band together with Isabel's best friend Ivan and his family, the Castillos. Contact us to start your free trial of SparkNotes Plus. Thus, Gratz presents the stark reality of the perils of such a passage. Young readers will finish this book and ask: What should we do? Lito is rescued and deported to Cuba. You're awesome. Im a big fan of that, and it was executed brilliantly here. The second is the date of Though the stories are fictionalized, the events they draw from are historical, enabling readers to empathize with the perils of those whose lives are too often dismissed as remote news stories. His father was put into a concentration camp during "The Night of Broken Glass," while Josef and his sister, Ruth watched their father being taken inhumanly. date the date you are citing the material. By entering your email address you agree to receive emails from SparkNotes and verify that you are over the age of 13. In the end, these three stories are connected. will help you with any book or any question. Isabels story starts with a riot. Josef's story is set in Nazi Germany in 1939. Detailed explanations, analysis, and citation info for every important quote on LitCharts. Josef and his family flee Nazi Germany in 1938; Isabel and her family flee Cuba in 1994; and Mahmoud and his family flee Syria in 2015. creating and saving your own notes as you read. Mahmouds story starts with their apartment building collapsing, due to people rioting because of the civil war going on in Syria.